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More multi-tasking children’s lit

If you use children’s stories in the classroom, are those stories skilled enough to do double – or triple – duty?

Piggybacking on what Helena Curtain advised, to use literature that’s deep enough to come at life and language in multiple ways, I’d like to add a couple of suggestions for books to add to your classroom.  I’m primarily addressing this to the elementary audience but if you’re a secondary teacher (as am I by my beginnings) you’ll easily see how these books might fit in your curriculum, as well.  Another note: I read these books in Spanish, but since I’m advising you to simplify the stories, they’re a great option for teachers of any language; just buy the book in English.

Unless you’re in an immersion school, your students likely do not have the proficiency to handle these stories (my bilingual 5-year-old: “What’s rabino? What’s bulliciosos?”).  So take your targets and make the story simple and repetitive.  Add gestures and sound effects and you’ve got a winner to keep you and the students in the target language and your environment acquisition-rich.

Los otros osos (The Other Bears)

In Los otros osos (English here), Michael Thompson introduces us to the koala family, where the mom and dad are not feeling very much like making friends with bears who are different.  They don’t like the pandas’ ears and shoes.  They’re annoyed by the polar bears’ claws and coats.  And don’t get them started on the noise the black bears make!  But their kids have a different opinion- the pandas have awesome food, the polar bears tell great jokes, and the black bears sing fun songs.  Here’s what I love about this book, for the language classroom:

  • Description: The koalas are brown and black and small, the polar bears are white and tall, the black bears are… well, you get the picture.
  • Likes / dislikes: For every new type of bear, the mom doesn’t like something, the dad doesn’t like something else, the kids like something else.
  • National symbols: Each bear has something that is related to a country where it is native.  The black bears wear red, white, & blue marching band uniforms.  The brown bears are dressed in their bright, warm Russian outfits.  The sun bears have their Southeast Asian umbrellas and ride bicycles.
  • Cross-curricular: As an extension of the national symbols aspect, the front and back covers of the book contain information on different types of bears and where they are found.
  • Celebrating difference: I don’t even want to call this tolerance because that implies quietly dealing with something you don’t like without hurting other people over it.  No, the koala bear kids celebrate difference – there’s something about the culture and personality of each type of bear that they really like.  This is a message our kids need to explore.

Siempre puede ser peor (It Could Always Be Worse)

Unless your library has the Spanish edition like mine, buy the English book as the Spanish version will run you close to $100 now that it seems to be out of print.  A poor family lives in such tight quarters (I learned the word apiñado here) that everyone’s at each other’s throats.  The father will do just about anything to make things better, including following the Rabbi’s advice to bring in the chickens… and the goat… and the cow!  Will they all go crazy?  It doesn’t hurt that the book won a Caldecott honor for illustrations.  Here’s what I love about this book, for the language classroom:

  • Family members: One dad, one mom, a grandma, six kids, and a Rabbi.  Give them all names and ages.
  • Animals and their sounds: you’ve got chickens, a rooster, goats, and a cow.  Add other animals, if you like.
  • Vocabulary: Take, put, or some other version of “brought in,” whatever’s common in the language you teach.  The dad takes the animals out of their (barn?) and puts them in the house.  Also something with “crazy.”  Also activities from the illustrations: “is sleeping” “is eating” “is yelling,” etc.  House and furniture, with comparisons to the student’s own home if that’s appropriate.
  • Do you have / I have: This is an aspect I love about repetitive books.  Every time he goes to the Rabbi, the father is asked “do you have” and responds “yes, I have.”
  • Thankfulness:   In the beginning, the whole family lives in one room.  In the end, the whole family lives in one room.  What changed?  It was their attitude.  They understood that perhaps their problems weren’t that terrible after all, and perhaps they could find peace in the situation they lived in.  We could all use a dose of that.

If you want one more recommendation, check out Bears on Chairs for concepts in numbers, math, problem-solving, and sharing (and someone please put this adorable poem in Spanish!).

What literature are you using to teach core values along with language?


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October 20, 2014 3 Comments

The First Day Story: Empowering with CI

In trying to tell a French teacher what I do the first day of school, I realized that my explanation of the first 12 days of Musicuentos Spanish 1 was, well, all in Spanish.  So, here’s some English for you.

There are so many, so very many great language learning principles, right?  So much second language acquisition research that shows students need

  • time
  • input they can understand
  • opportunities to use meaningful language
  • lots of time
  • interaction involving negotiating meaning
  • meaningful repetition
  • more time

to be successful in acquiring a new language.

But oh, my teacher friend, if I could figure out the words to communicate how powerful it is to put in practice what is, to me, the most important thing every language teacher needs to realize:


It’s taken me a long time to come to the place where I’m willing to say that if we believe that motivation is a key factor -perhaps the key factor- in language learning success, our practice ought to reflect it – always.  I’m still figuring out what that looks like.  We can give the homework and give the assessments and put the grades in the gradebooks, we can put up fancy posters and duct tape and send home fancy infographic newsletters and syllabi, but if we haven’t accessed what students are motivated by – not how we can motivate them, but what factors within them motivate themselves – we’ll lose them as soon as the requirement is fulfilled, or there’s a schedule conflict, or they move to another city.  And if native speakers can lose proficiency in the language they were born into, our best long-term-memory-building games and techniques aren’t going to stand against the test of years of ignoring the L2.

Okay, /soapbox.  It’s me, and I always have to start with a bit of theory before I apply it.  My application here is pretty simple: in the magic, difficult question of what motivates students, one answer that many teachers have found is that students are motivated to keep learning simply by a little success in the first place.  I’m sure you’ve experienced it before; when you succeed at something, you want to keep doing it.

Students don’t come into your classroom expecting to succeed.  If you’re going to speak to them in the target language, they expect to be lost.  If you can communicate to them on the very first day that they can understand, it’s incredibly empowering.  And it’s fun.  You get to watch their eyes light up as they think

Wait a minute.

She’s speaking Spanish. (or French or whatever)

And I understand her.

And I’m answering her!


In my classroom, my policy is students get their syllabus and they know how to read and they can read on their own time (I refuse to publish grades until parents and students have signed and returned my syllabus).  We can talk about procedures on the second day.  The first day is all about fun, and it’s all about understanding.

So my suggestion is to spend the first day showing students that they will be able to understand you, and I start by explaining this:

Welcome to Spanish class.

It’s Spanish class, so I’m going to speak a whole lot of Spanish.

But whether you understand or not is primarily my responsibility.  Your responsibilities are to 1) listen, 2) watch, and 3) tell me when you don’t understand.  If you do that, and I’m doing my job, you’ll understand.  I promise.  Don’t believe me? Let’s try it.

And then I launch into a story.  Your story will vary depending on your student level and demographic and so on, but basically, it’s just something to show them that because you’re willing to draw, gesture, act, sing, or whatever, it’s going to be fun, and they’re going to understand.  Here’s my first-day story for Spanish 1 (100% in target language):

Let’s draw a boy (girl). [I draw a girl, students do as well.]
What’s the girl’s name? Jane? Emma? Angelina Jolie? (Girl in class)? No.  What’s her name? [Students choose a name-María. Write 'María'.]
Okay, her name is María.  Hi María.  Everybody say hi, María.
What color [emphasize] is her hair? Blue? Red? Brown? Black? [Point to colors or use color cards until students understand and choose a color - this is the pattern through the story. Point, students understand, draw.]
How does she feel? Is she happy? Is she sad? Is she angry? [Students choose, draw facial expression.]
What’s the girl like? Is she fat? Is she thin? [Choose, draw.]
What’s the girl wearing?  A shirt? A dress?  A tutu?  What color?

I know, it’s not really a story, but you get the idea.  We may get into what kind of hair she has (curly, straight), whether she has glasses, how old she is, where she’s from, and so on.  I do this on day 1 with Spanish 1 and students understand the whole thing and answer all the questions and draw everything, because I’m coaching them through it.  Do they acquire the ability to use this language? Of course not!  But that wasn’t my point – my point was to empower them with the knowledge that they can comprehend in this class when it’s all in Spanish, and it will be fun.  In this first class we might also playfully work on learning names (using “his name is…” etc.) and play a song that’s fun and targets some goal (such as Aserejé to simply show them that part of learning language is wrapping your mouth around the words, and to get them having fun using language)  Later, the character they created becomes a character in the first stories (she makes friends with a Martian penguin and then disappears as the penguin and Garfield become our primary Spanish 1 characters).

How will you make the first day of school about helping students find that they will understand, they will have fun, and this motivates future learning?

For more ideas on comprehensible input on the first days of school, check out this great post by Cynthia Hitz and Martina Bex’s First Days tag.

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August 17, 2014 3 Comments

Repost: A story for demonstratives

I’ve been blogging for a long time, longer than most of you have been reading here, and it occurs to me someone might benefit from a repost once in a while.  Here’s one from early 2009.

I’ve come up with a story that in both Spanish 1 and 2 has worked really well with teaching demonstratives. We’ve worked with those quite a bit for the past couple of weeks, and I’ve been amazed at how fast my students have become consistent and proficient at using them.

Foto: Mariah Demarco

There is a girl, her name is Goldilocks, she has blond hair, and she’s however old the students decide (reviewing beginner phrases). She’s wearing a (color) dress. Is she sad? No, she’s happy. She has a friend, her friend is an animal, he’s a little bear, and his name is Charlie.

(I draw these two on the left side of the board, and then draw three long arcs at about equal widths across the board to indicate space close to them, a bit farther, and farthest away.)

Goldilocks wants lots of things. Charlie has lots of things in his house. Charlie offers her these things. Goldilocks wants soup.

Charlie says, ‘Do you want this soup’? Does Goldilocks want this soup? No, this soup is too hot. (repeat for that soup, which is too cold) (repeat for that soup over there, which is perfect).

Now what does Goldilocks need for her soup?  She needs spoons.  She wants one one for each hand to give us the opportunity to practice the plural.  Two are too red, two are too green, and two are perfectly yellow, the color of her hair.

What is good with soup?  She wants bread.  One is too big, another too small, but the third just right.

We did this in Spanish 1 talking about home and eating, but you can use anything. In Spanish 2 we were working on dropping the noun to get esto, ésos, etc, and we used gorra, pantuflas, and something else that escapes me at the moment.

Believe it or not, once you’ve gotten high-schoolers to accept the fact that where a second language is concerned, they’re like kindergarteners, they’ll tolerate just about anything–including nursery rhymes!

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November 12, 2013 1 Comment

Seven keys to a great story

It’s no secret – I believe the single best way to keep students’ attention, deliver comprehensible input, frame new content, and interact with vocabulary is storytelling.

You may not think you are a natural storyteller, but you are.  Everyone is.  Telling stories is a part of life.  You tell your spouse the crazy things your child said in the car after school today.  You tell your best friend the plot of the movie you saw last week.  You tell your colleague about something that happened to you when you were a child.

That said, it does take some practice to simply make up stories that frame your content and keep your students’ attention, but I promise it’s worth it.  When you see the magic that storytelling injects into your classroom, you’ll never let go of it.  Here’s what I think are the seven keys to a great story.

  • Goals
    Stories aren’t just for fun.  The purpose is to deliver content and get your students interacting with it.  How can the story be aligned with your current theme?  How can you use your target vocabulary? How can you get students to notice the definite article changes, or plurals, or demonstratives, or whatever?
  • Student involvement
    Make sure every story involves your students in a very positive light.  So someone’s having a party and Brad Pitt is there but so is Chuck and which one is more handsome? Chuck, of course.  All the girls want to dance with Chuck.  And everyone’s dancing because Julia’s playing guitar and everyone knows she plays guitar better than Santana. And so on.
  • Questions
    I believe carefully designed questioning is the single greatest characteristic of an effective teacher in any discipline, but it’s of paramount importance in the world language classroom.  Ask and keep asking, and use your questions to let students design parts of the story that aren’t necessary to your target features.  Who’s at the party? Who’s with Chuck? What are they eating? How much are they eating? Who threw it all up?
  • Strange characters
    Last year I thought I was leaving my school and I was throwing away a lot of visuals and other things I hadn’t used in a long time.  One of the things I put in the trash was a posterboard visual of a penguin.  One of my former students, a college student who works in after-school care now, rescued the penguin from the trash, took a picture of it, tweeted at other former students, and before I knew it I was being reprimanded on social media for throwing away such a precious piece of Spanish class nostalgia.  These college students remember (and care) that once upon a time a Martian penguin named Jeffrey was a regular character in their Spanish class stories.  (Yes, this is the penguin in the Musicuentos logo.)
    It doesn’t matter what the character is – let your student pick it.  But a turtle who can play tennis or a Transformer with a personal vendetta against Walmart can go a long way to creating long-term memory.
  • Simplicity
    You know your students aren’t ready for the level of complexity that exists even in a child’s picture book.  Water down the language until you absolutely know it’s comprehensible.  Challenging, but comprehensible.
  • Repetition
    Research shows that people need to hear vocabulary in context dozens of times in order for it to become part of their active vocabulary.  Imagine the repetitions required to acquire the ability to manipulate verbs and the like.
    Think about children’s stories – I know an old lady who swallowed a fly.  Old MacDonald had a farm. I love you this much, said the nut brown hare.  Where is baby’s belly button? Good night, moon.  On Monday, the caterpillar ate through one red apple.  So repetitive. Even when the content is different, the sentence structure is the same.  The questions are often formed the same way.  Why? Because that’s how children acquire language.  Through repetitious play with language.
    It’s fairly easy to design stories with effective repetition by thinking of a question that leads to your learning target.  Working with verbs?  Think about subject, verb, location. Who dances on the couch?  Who dances by the pool? Who dances in the kitchen? Who eats in the bathroom? Who eats with the dogs?
  • An unexpected ending
    I let my students choose a lot of the story, but I rarely let them choose the end, especially at the beginning of the year when they’re not used to how outrageous I want them to be in choosing story elements.  Think about it – right at the end, when you’ve worked through your content and storyline, and you’re about to lose their attention, wham, Chuck is abducted from the party by fire-breathing aliens.  Julia plays the guitar so fast it bursts into flames.  As it turns out, the whole story was just a dream Sam the somnolent student had last period dozing in math class.  Recapture attention and create more memory by creating a memorable ending.

Happy storytelling!

Foto: Imagen en acción


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September 17, 2013 9 Comments

Cortometraje for narration

One of our major goals for Spanish 3 is to refine narration.  We believe this is a critical function of language.  Teenagers do it all the time.  They talk about what they did over the weekend, over the summer, yesterday in math class.  They tell stories about the amazing shot at the basketball game or the kid who threw up in the cafeteria.  They describe the plot of the movie they saw last week or the book they finished last night.  A great deal of life’s language is narrating stories.

Here’s an activity we did to practice narration.

    1. Show the cortometraje “La leyenda del Espantapájaros.”  First, show it with no audio and ask students what happened.
    2. Offer key vocabulary like espantapájaros and cenizas and molina.
    3. Show the video again, with the audio, and then ask key comprehension questions.
    4. Watch the clip one last time with the audio, pausing to point out key events and the verbs used to talk about them.
    5. Chart the film in the form of a timeline.  Use a symbol such as a triangle for description or setting the scene, and one such as an exclamation point for key actions in the storyline.  Use a symbol such as a right-facing arrow to add the sequencing phrases used like “esa misma noche,” an important proficiency-pushing skill in storytelling.  Put description above the line and actions below.
    6. Have students retell the story using their timelines.


Use this film as a starting point to investigate and share other legends.

Transition into students doing a similar timeline of a story in their life or a good story they’ve heard so they can share with classmates while practicing sequencing and narration.

If you teach a language other than Spanish, please share a similar short film others could use for that language.


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March 21, 2013 6 Comments

A storytelling success story

In honor of last night’s #langchat topic, I want to share something that happened in one of my kindergarten classes this week.

At my school, we have mandatory Spanish from age 3 in preschool through 10th grade. Until 2nd grade, however, students only receive between 15 and 20 minutes of instruction per week. I’ve been told many times that this is a waste of my time, and I know there’s very little you can do in that amount of time, but as I’ve said before, that time compounded year after year as students stay at our school could produce some significant acquisition.

In preschool, I teach a story in the fall and a story in the spring. @PreKlanguages gave me a crash-course in teaching preschool that rocked my world: start with a character and a color. Add an action. Add a song. Repeat every week. So that’s what we do. It takes us an entire semester to go through our fall story: there’s the grass, and it’s green. On the grass there’s a house. It’s red. Who lives in the house? Elmo? No, the pollito. He’s yellow (song: “Los pollitos”). One day he takes a walk. He walks fast. He walks slow.It continues from there but you get the idea.Fast forward to kindergarten. At this point the kids come to me and I can use my projector, so we have a powerpoint story and a lot of YouTube videos and playing online games, etc. In late winter – this week – the bear in our story takes a walk to the park where he finds a dad and girl, and a mom and boy. So I start telling the story and doing the action -el oso camina- and that word barely gets out of my mouth when I hear a little guy up front say “espacio” (despacio).

It almost took my breath away, and you have to understand why. This boy was in my preschool last year and hasn’t heard that word from me in almost a year (and I know he doesn’t receive any Spanish input outside my class). He has behavior problems. He has attention problems. Sometimes it seems he has processing problems. And he produced a comprehensible word in an appropriate context when I hadn’t used it with the bear and actually didn’t intend to.Children learn language because people are constantly telling them stories. Why wouldn’t this work in SLA as well?
photo credit: ucumari via photopin cc

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February 3, 2012 2 Comments

Activity 1: Cuento poco a poco

Telling a story by categories

photo by flamingoo
This idea came from a session at CSC on theater that was generally so awful that I left halfway through. Really, it was so bad it was painful. But, I came away with this activity that I thought I could make work in my classroom.

In “Cuento poco a poco,” I use the fruit machine chooser to randomly choose a student to start. Then, the student has to begin a story with something from the first category. So, if it is ‘things that are blue,’ the student may say, ‘En un planeta azul vivía un mónstruo’ or something else according to his/her ability. Then the next student picks up the story by adding a detail from the next category. Make sense? These are the categories I started with:

• Cosas que son verdes• Un sonido extraño
• Cosas que son cuadrados
• Cosas que son altos
• Una acción inesperada
• Un pariente
• Un hábito curioso
• Una persona en un show de televisión
• Un fin triste
The first time we did this, I found an unexpected benefit: the first time around, some students added a random detail that seemed disjointed and didn’t actually further the story, like “the monkey had a grandfather who was a giraffe.” So I explained that students should incorporate all the details together to make a coherent story. It made them listen to each other more and use other students’ details to come up with a logical continuity. Sounds like subtle AP practice to me. :) We changed random words to whatever they wanted (green to red, tall to fat, sad to tragic, etc.) and began again, with a different student starting.Thoughts?

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March 29, 2011 5 Comments

And the winner is…

This year I picked up some early childhood Spanish to free up some time for our K-8 teacher to increase his instruction in our grades 6-8. So I teach 3-year-olds through 1st grade. I get 10 minutes per week with 3-year-olds, 15 minutes with 4-year-olds, and 20 minutes with kindergarten and 1st grade.

The first reaction I get from language teachers at this is laughter. What can you do in 15 minutes per week? Nothing.

I laugh back. Not nothing. Something big, or so I have found. It’s not earth-shattering, but it’s a breakthrough for me.

A little more background–the private school where I teach is connected to a church with a very strong emphasis on adoption, and we have a lot of internationally adopted
students in our school. This year in my younger classes I have, for example, two four-year-old Russians and a 1st-grader also from Russia. I had a few questions at the beginning of the year, people asking me if I thought them taking Spanish would hinder their English acquisition. I told them, bah, absolutely not. Bring on the languages, right?

All–and I mean 100%–of my training is in secondary education. So I started this blind. I knew it needed to be immersion. I knew it needed to include stories and questions. Songs. I knew last year they learned a few words of vocabulary and did a color sheet and I knew that wasn’t the route I wanted to take. But the format? Clueless. After my first day in preschool I sent a shout-out for help to @PreKlanguages who called me and gave me a 30-minute crash course in teaching preschool Spanish.

So, we’re building a story. There’s a red house on a green hill. The yellow chick lives in the red house (Los pollitos dicen pío pío pío). One day he takes a walk and finds a blue lake. He drinks the water. He sees his friend the brown frog. The brown frog jumps 10 times and sings “Cucú.” And so on. It’s crazy fun.

For 10 weeks I’ve been asking, ¿Quién vive en la casa? Providing options. Superman? No. ¿Tú? No. Your teacher (name)? No. ¡El pollito vive en la casa! Waiting for someone to answer. So far, nothing. Which doesn’t bother me, it’s natural acquisition and you just wait for it to take its course.

Until yesterday. I’m in one of my four-year-old classes and telling the story. Here’s the red house. ¿Quién vive en la casa?

And there it is. One of the little boys pipes up in all seriousness, “Pollito.” Like “pozhito” with a rasp on the ll and all. I jumped up and high-fived him and nearly went through the roof.

And the winner is…

One of the Russian adopted boys.

Oh and today? In a three-year-old class I asked, ¿De qué color es la casa? And a little girl answers,


She flipped the vowel to feminine. They have never done that before.

That’s what 15 minutes a week can give you.

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October 29, 2010 2 Comments

Books recommended as ‘easy’

I found a helpful post on where someone recommends easy novels to read while learning Spanish. I hope to order them and see whether they might be good for Spanish 2, since I’m all about feeding kids authentic rather than learner Spanish from the beginning.

One is La Tierra del Fuego, and the other is El Clan de la Loba/La Guerra de las Brujas.

For Bethanie, who asked a long time ago, and anyone else who cares.

Here are a couple of other options recommended to me via Twitter and Amazon:
A children’s sensation in Spain, Manolito Gafotas (if you can find enough copies en español)
The last of the Manolito series, Manolito Tiene un Secreto
Adventure novel Limpieza de sangre
El pirata Garrapata (and sequels) - I’ve been able to read part of this book since the original post.  I don’t believe it’s “easy” at all and I don’t recommend it for novice learners because it’s packed with satirical language and double meanings.  Everyone’s name means something else, or a combination of things, and the dialogue between characters goes back and forth in constant misunderstandings and rephrasings of plays on words.  It’s fun, but not for a novice.

For novels specifically written with language learners in mind, I do recommend any novels put out by TPRS Publishing and of course, you can also check out the Blaine Ray TPRS novels.

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September 23, 2010 2 Comments

My level 1 and 2 stories (for Bethanie, and whomever else)

A little while ago I made a post about pleasure reading that elicited a few comments from Bethanie:

Bethanie said…

Could you elaborate on what you do with the reading guides/palabras claves? I would like to incorporate more long reading into my classes in addition to the shorter pieces I already use, but struggle with some of the same things you mentioned.

Also, if you could select books for levels 1 and 2, what would you pick?


24 November, 2009 21:08

Sarita said…

Hi Bethanie! Now I just hand the students the guides/palabras claves and they turn them in on the due date. A couple of tips that are important, I think, are 1) to reduce frustration, read together at first to teach them how to find the important things without looking up every word (make sure you understand subject/verb, leave the sentence as soon as you have the gist of it, leave the paragraph as soon as you have the gist, understand every part of a sentence when you know the answer to a ? is there); 2) give them the page numbers of the answers to the questions and make sure they’re chronological; 3) give a list of high-frequency words from the chapter that they’re not likely to know; and 4) rehash the chapter in a TPRS/circling way when they turn in the guide to gauge who understood what.
As for books for lower levels, have you seen the TPRS books by Blaine Ray et al? You can start here. Good luck!

25 November, 2009 16:07

Bethanie said…

Hi Sarita,
Thanks for your response. I have a few of the Blaine Ray novels, and I think they are a great idea to consider. I find teaching this type of reading to be a greater challenge at the lower levels (1-2) than at the upper levels (3+), so I appreciate the ideas that you’ve shared.

01 December, 2009 22:47

When I first started giving my students stories with comprehension questions as assessment, I remember wishing there were more available for free on the internet, especially for lower-level students. I’m still not aware of anyone publishing or offering such stories on the internet, but at least I’d like to offer mine to Bethanie and anyone else who wants to use them. A few notes about them:
1-I believe that students pay more attention with a lower affective filter (and therefore acquire more) if the stories are interesting, funny, weird, or all of the above.
2-Long stories are frustrating so none is longer than 1 page.
3-Sorry for any mistakes/misprints. Feel free to make them your own.
4-They deliberately use vocabulary my students learned in that particular quarter. You may want to replace words to match your students’ vocabulary.
5-The stories that are one page long with questions on the other page, I scored as tests.
6-There are a couple of stories I wrote for them to answer questions on (quiz grade) and then they filled in blanks with different details to make the story their own (daily grade) and exchanged with another student(s) who answered the questions based on the new story (quiz grade).

Level 1 stories
Level 2 stories

Hope you find them useful!

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January 7, 2010 3 Comments