The Blog

The First Day Story: Empowering with CI

In trying to tell a French teacher what I do the first day of school, I realized that my explanation of the first 12 days of Musicuentos Spanish 1 was, well, all in Spanish.  So, here’s some English for you.

There are so many, so very many great language learning principles, right?  So much second language acquisition research that shows students need

  • time
  • input they can understand
  • opportunities to use meaningful language
  • lots of time
  • interaction involving negotiating meaning
  • meaningful repetition
  • more time

to be successful in acquiring a new language.

But oh, my teacher friend, if I could figure out the words to communicate how powerful it is to put in practice what is, to me, the most important thing every language teacher needs to realize:

motivate

It’s taken me a long time to come to the place where I’m willing to say that if we believe that motivation is a key factor -perhaps the key factor- in language learning success, our practice ought to reflect it – always.  I’m still figuring out what that looks like.  We can give the homework and give the assessments and put the grades in the gradebooks, we can put up fancy posters and duct tape and send home fancy infographic newsletters and syllabi, but if we haven’t accessed what students are motivated by – not how we can motivate them, but what factors within them motivate themselves – we’ll lose them as soon as the requirement is fulfilled, or there’s a schedule conflict, or they move to another city.  And if native speakers can lose proficiency in the language they were born into, our best long-term-memory-building games and techniques aren’t going to stand against the test of years of ignoring the L2.

Okay, /soapbox.  It’s me, and I always have to start with a bit of theory before I apply it.  My application here is pretty simple: in the magic, difficult question of what motivates students, one answer that many teachers have found is that students are motivated to keep learning simply by a little success in the first place.  I’m sure you’ve experienced it before; when you succeed at something, you want to keep doing it.

Students don’t come into your classroom expecting to succeed.  If you’re going to speak to them in the target language, they expect to be lost.  If you can communicate to them on the very first day that they can understand, it’s incredibly empowering.  And it’s fun.  You get to watch their eyes light up as they think

Wait a minute.

She’s speaking Spanish. (or French or whatever)

And I understand her.

And I’m answering her!

Whoa!

In my classroom, my policy is students get their syllabus and they know how to read and they can read on their own time (I refuse to publish grades until parents and students have signed and returned my syllabus).  We can talk about procedures on the second day.  The first day is all about fun, and it’s all about understanding.

So my suggestion is to spend the first day showing students that they will be able to understand you, and I start by explaining this:

Welcome to Spanish class.

It’s Spanish class, so I’m going to speak a whole lot of Spanish.

But whether you understand or not is primarily my responsibility.  Your responsibilities are to 1) listen, 2) watch, and 3) tell me when you don’t understand.  If you do that, and I’m doing my job, you’ll understand.  I promise.  Don’t believe me? Let’s try it.

And then I launch into a story.  Your story will vary depending on your student level and demographic and so on, but basically, it’s just something to show them that because you’re willing to draw, gesture, act, sing, or whatever, it’s going to be fun, and they’re going to understand.  Here’s my first-day story for Spanish 1 (100% in target language):

Let’s draw a boy (girl). [I draw a girl, students do as well.]
What’s the girl’s name? Jane? Emma? Angelina Jolie? (Girl in class)? No.  What’s her name? [Students choose a name-María. Write 'María'.]
Okay, her name is María.  Hi María.  Everybody say hi, María.
What color [emphasize] is her hair? Blue? Red? Brown? Black? [Point to colors or use color cards until students understand and choose a color - this is the pattern through the story. Point, students understand, draw.]
How does she feel? Is she happy? Is she sad? Is she angry? [Students choose, draw facial expression.]
What’s the girl like? Is she fat? Is she thin? [Choose, draw.]
What’s the girl wearing?  A shirt? A dress?  A tutu?  What color?

I know, it’s not really a story, but you get the idea.  We may get into what kind of hair she has (curly, straight), whether she has glasses, how old she is, where she’s from, and so on.  I do this on day 1 with Spanish 1 and students understand the whole thing and answer all the questions and draw everything, because I’m coaching them through it.  Do they acquire the ability to use this language? Of course not!  But that wasn’t my point – my point was to empower them with the knowledge that they can comprehend in this class when it’s all in Spanish, and it will be fun.  In this first class we might also playfully work on learning names (using “his name is…” etc.) and play a song that’s fun and targets some goal (such as Aserejé to simply show them that part of learning language is wrapping your mouth around the words, and to get them having fun using language)  Later, the character they created becomes a character in the first stories (she makes friends with a Martian penguin and then disappears as the penguin and Garfield become our primary Spanish 1 characters).

How will you make the first day of school about helping students find that they will understand, they will have fun, and this motivates future learning?

For more ideas on comprehensible input on the first days of school, check out this great post by Cynthia Hitz and Martina Bex’s First Days tag.

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August 17, 2014 3 Comments

Keeping games communicative

Powerpoint templates can make for great games!

Many teachers are back in school and last night’s year-starting #langchat topic was, by a large majority vote, review techniques that get students moving forward quickly after a long break.  I was sick and wasn’t able to join in the conversation but I’m going to assume that someone mentioned games.  I would have!  Who wouldn’t want the back-to-school routines broken up with some great games?

As you start your year and think about games to review and practice, here’s some advice.

Fun = learning! (Not!)

Research tells us that when students are having fun (or other emotions are attached to an activity) that memory is encoded more easily and more permanently.  After all, don’t young children learn the most through play?

That doesn’t mean, however, that students are learning whenever they’re playing.  In order for a game to be helpful, it has to involve content that is worth being remembered.  So how do we make sure that’s happening?

One is the loneliest number

We’ve all seen them and tried them – games that involve students using discrete (individual, disconnected) words without attention to what they mean.  (Word search, anyone?)  Well, being realistic, there will always be those days when there’s more to do than minutes to do them and I just need my students to be occupied doing something while I grade a few papers I couldn’t stay awake for last night, but as a general practice, discrete word games aren’t helpful.

This doesn’t mean we shouldn’t do vocabulary practice, just that we should always connect words to their meaning.  On the one hand, you have an app game like Ruzzle, where players connect letters to form any word.  It’s fun and I love playing it, but I often don’t even know what the word I just made even means.  I’m just glad I got points for it.  Or a word search along the theme of “At the beach.”  Okay, so I know the words have something to do with the beach, but otherwise I’m just searching for words in the grid, without any attention to what they mean.  On the other hand, you could have a vocabulary game where you describe the meaning and students have to come up with the word.  I like to use the Align the Stars powerpoint game for a game like this.  It’s a challenge, but so much better (and always in intermediate classes) to give the definition in the target language.  Doing this with a Jeopardy! game from Jeopardy Labs is fun too – try doing them in categories like “people at the park” or “words you hear from a teacher.”

Tweak & share

I rarely come across a game that’s simply unredeemable.  If you see a game suggested and it has some qualities that don’t quite match what we know about language learning, think about how you can tweak them.  I went to a games session at Central States Conference one year and came away with a lot of ideas about how to use games I didn’t quite agree with but could tweak to do what I wanted to do.  Check out how Martina Bex has been trying to add meaning value to Wordoku to see what I mean.  I’m not sure her changes are quite contextualized enough for me, and they target chunks too much in the TPRS randomness that bothers me, but I think she’s asking all the right questions about games!  Look at this blog post from an EFL teacher; what games there are keepers?  What might need a little tweaking?

Then share with the rest of us! What games have worked for you to review and practice?  What games get your students using real language in fun ways?  For more ideas of games that have worked for my students, check out my games tag.

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August 15, 2014 3 Comments

Let’s talk tacos: Informing parents & students on proficiency

Evan P. Cordes

Evan P. Cordes

It’s a new school year and for many of us that means talking to new students and new parents about something they’re very unfamiliar with: language proficiency.

You may have caught this document on the wikispace for the workshop I did with the Webb School of Knoxville this summer; it’s something I put together to help you inform parents and students on how and why your classroom is focused on language proficiency and nothing else – not grades, not direct objects, not fluffy food projects.  To make it useful for as many teachers as possible, I didn’t refer to any school or language in particular in the document.  To edit it, simply click “File” and “Make a copy” and Drive will save the file to your own drive for you to edit.

Here it is:

Let’s talk tacos

 

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August 12, 2014 2 Comments

Regreso a clases! Ciudad on sale

It’s back to school time and also feeling like time for me to ease back into doing what I love, while I enjoy the memories of my dad who was the conduit of love for Spanish in my life.

cover.JPGThe events of this summer have delayed several things, including new Black Box Podcast episodes and changes to the podcast, and the release of the ebook guide to Cajas de cartón.  I’d intended to put the ebook guide to Ciudad de las bestias on sale at 20% off to celebrate the release of Cajas, but with that book delayed I didn’t want to delay the Ciudad sale as well, until you’re all back in school and “guide-less”!  And so, until September 1, you can buy the ebook guide to Isabel Allende’s novel to Ciudad de las bestias at 20% off, only $39.95.

Haven’t checked out the guide yet?  You can read all about it and buy via Paypal here, including a sample and information on how to use a purchase order to buy it.  Briefly, I recommend Allende’s novel and this guide for Intermediate Mid to pre-Advanced students, AP, IB, and heritage classes.  I taught it for six years as part of AP Spanish.  With your purchase you receive a license to copy the guide for all of your students for as long as you are teaching (not transferable after use).

Planned to use the Cajas de cartón guide this year and frustrated by the delays?  If you’d like to start using the guide with your students, please contact me and ask for the first three chapters absolutely free.  There’s no introduction or dictionary yet, and illustrations are limited also, but you’ll have the beginning to get you all started as I work to get the book released by September 1.  I am recommending this novel for Intermediate Low to pre-Advanced students.

Be energized!

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August 6, 2014 0 Comments

Oso de Mantequilla: A tribute

wedding parentsI grew up in a fundamental Christian church in the South, where everyone referred to the men as “Brother” and their first or last name.  My best friend as a toddler could not pronounce my father’s last name – “Brother Blair” – and it came out “Butter Bear.”  And so my mother’s favorite nickname was born.

Later, when my dad decided to pick up Spanish after 20 years of not studying it (he could do that sort of thing), my mom asked a friend how to say “Butter Bear” in Spanish, and so her favorite nickname for him morphed again, into “Oso de mantequilla.”

One thing about having your own blog is that you can write whatever you want, and today, I write a tribute to my dad, who died unexpectedly at the age of 68 on July 16, 2014.  A tribute to Oso de Mantequilla, which I also delivered as the eulogy at his funeral last Sunday.

When I tell you that I grew up in a fundamentalist church in the deep South, I can feel the stereotypes rising and I plead with you to let my father smash them all.

Yes, my dad lived and worked in east central Georgia for 30 years.  Yes, he retired as a Texas rancher.  But not only was my dad a highly valued specialist at a nuclear plant, he also knew how to pronounce the word nuclear. He adopted a love for collard greens but still used the word “pop” to refer to soda.  He spoke two languages, sometimes three, and could assemble and disassemble a computer or a radio or a chicken coop.  He taught me what a fulcrum was, he taught me CPR, and he taught me how to sweep a sidewalk without being a perfectionist.  He took me to the space station and took me to the jungle in Ecuador.  He taught me Spanish and how to use it to help people who were lonely and lost.  He taught me how to plan my Spanish curriculum and sent me games for my students to play.  I called him my assistant teacher from a thousand miles away.  He was one of the best friends I ever had.  I know intellectually it sounds weird for a 30-something woman to hold hands with a  60-something man -even to me this sounds like it would look odd at Walmart- but that was me and my dad, it was us, and it wasn’t weird.  He was my friend.

My dad with my son, March 2014

My dad with my son, March 2014

I wish I had more space to help you know him more.  I wish I could tell you why he called me “girl with legs” and where the word frubbies came from and what it means.  I wish I could tell you the story about the “really big shoe,” how he taught me not to flip a canoe by flipping us both into an alligator-infested lake, how much he hated New York, how “abracadabra” fit into our breakfast routine, why he had a scar on his upper lip, or how he made me change my own flat tire. How he always said “Let’s say prayer” instead of “let’s pray” and every mealtime prayer started with “Father, thank you for our home and our family.”  Our home and our family.

He was my family and he was my friend.  But of all the places he took me and all the things he taught me, what’s most important is that he took me to church, and he taught me who Jesus was.

When my dad and my brother were living near Chicago, a church sent a bus by to see if they could take my brother to Sunday School.  My dad let them but decided that he needed to know what they were going to be teaching him so he went to church.  God did not use that bus ministry to change my brother’s heart, but He did use it to change my dad’s.  My dad was a man of logic and faith working together in perfect harmony and it just made perfect sense to him – that the human heart with its intricate valves and movement, the cells and molecules that work together to pump for five years or a hundred years or sixty-eight years, four months, and thirteen days, that

with my daughter, March 2014

with my daughter, March 2014

 Someone had to have designed it, and that other transcendental idea we call the human heart, that thing that in us wants to do right but just so we’ll be recognized for it or wants to do wrong and cheat, lie, steal, kidnap, kill, and lash out at people we say we love, that human heart could only be fixed by the One who made it.  That’s what my dad knew, that’s what made sense, and then there was faith.  He had faith that the One who would fix it all, who would bring us the very good ending to all this mess, was Jesus Christ, the perfect Son of God who lived a perfect life and died a perfect death to pay the terrible price for the sins of all those who would ever have faith in him, and then rose again.  Rose again to live.

Several months ago I had a dream about my dad and it moved me so much I knew I had to tell him about it.  But when I just tried to tell my husband about it, I cried so much I knew I couldn’t tell my dad on the phone, so I wrote him a letter.  I knew he’d have kept it so I went looking for it and sure enough, I found it on his desk.  Let me print it for you here.

Dear Dad,

I had the most amazing dream last night and I wanted to tell you about it, but when I tried to tell Joshua I cried so much I knew I couldn’t tell you on the phone so I’d have to write it.

I dreamed you and I and Mom and many other people I knew and didn’t know were in a place that was like a nursing home but was a meeting of the worlds: there were young people alive and old people alive and also old people who had died and I was the only one who could see and interact with them all.  At first you were there and worked there.  Then one day you packed up your office and became one of the ghost people.  I had the sense that I needed to figure out what to do with all the books and knick-knacks in the place but I didn’t process the event as a death and I could still interact with you, but only visually.  You were like a ghost, so I couldn’t touch you.  I don’t remember feeling sad because I could see and talk to you.  But one day I saw you in the hallway and I knew you weren’t like the ghost people anymore – you were real again.  I was overwhelmed with happiness and ran down the hallway to hug you.  I wrapped my arms around you and was completely overjoyed to actually touch you again, but what really struck me was your smell.  I was breathing in and it smelled like my dad and to breathe in that smell again, I was so happy I thought I could float away.  I woke up with a sense of joy and peace in my heart.

So I have to tell you – you can’t ever leave me because I have to know where to find you and your smell.

I love you so much -

Sara

I believe God sent me that dream early to remind me to cherish the moments with my dad because He knew there weren’t too many left.  He knew my dad was leaving.  I told my dad not to leave me, but he did.

with my daughter, Christmas  2012

with my daughter, Christmas 2012

It’s a complicated story, but we were driving to Rhode Island when my dad’s condition got very critical and I needed to get on a plane in Cincinnati.  We booked the flight and had a couple of hours so we found a park nearby and had a picnic together, my husband, my kids, and me.  My one-year-old son Judah was climbing on a bench and found this paper.  My husband said, look what Judah found, and gave it to me.  It said “Expect a miracle.”  The paper made me smile and gave me hope.

But where’s the miracle?  The park bench told me to expect a miracle, and then my dad died.  We didn’t get a miracle.

Or did we?

My husband told me he thought my dream was about the resurrection, that God was reassuring me that even when my dad did leave, that one day I’d see him again, that he lives, and maybe even God will use the same laundry detergent so my dad will keep his smell.

My dad lives, and I will see him again.  I don’t tell you this because it makes me feel better.  I don’t tell you because I want to believe it so badly.  I tell you because this is what my dad would tell you if he could talk to you now.  He’d tell you that some of you have a spiritual heart every bit as dead as his physical one is now, and he’d tell me that you can’t be argued out of it.  God has to open the eyes of your heart.  Even right now you’re sitting there thinking, this is what you believe and I’m glad it makes you feel better.  See, God knew you would think that.  He knew you’d think, so you say you’re God, so you say Jesus was your Son, so you say He died to bring the hope of a very good ending to this very bad middle, so you say you get to tell me how to live, so what? Anyone can say that.

And to that, God said, oh yeah? Watch this. I can say that.  And I can make My dead Son live.

I make the dead live.

John 11 tells us that Jesus said, “I am the resurrection and the life.  Whoever believes in me, though he die, yet shall he live.”

Expect a miracle.  This is the miracle.  People throw around the word “miracle” as if it were a sandwich topping but a miracle is actually something that defies all explanation, and I mean any other explanation except God did it.  A doctor can take the valve of a pig’s heart and put it in the human heart and put off death for a few more years, and that’s amazing, but it’s not a miracle.

But make the dead live?  Only God can do that.  Here’s what my dad would say if he could talk to you now:

You want to see a miracle? I died.  And yet I live.

P.S.

Write to your dad.

Take care of your heart.

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July 24, 2014 10 Comments

It’s coming!

cajas cover

I haven’t been blogging much lately and am dropping off the radar for about a month and I feel the need to explain why.

If you’ve ever used the “Recent Popular Posts” section on the right side of the blog, you’ve probably noticed that one very not recent post stays up there.  I really ought to title the section “recently popular posts”  because it actually lists the top six posts that have been accessed the most in the past six months or so.  The one “old” post that is always on that list is the post linking to my chapter questions for the short novels Cajas de cartón and Esperanza renace.

I’ve been working on a formal ebook for Cajas de cartón off and on, much like the one I developed for the more advanced novel La ciudad de las bestias by Isabel Allende.  That list of popular posts and my Google Analytics and periodic nudging emails have been “nagging” me to keep working on it.

And it’s almost here!

Some details:

You’ll always be able to access the original reading comprehension questions via that old blog post, but I have to tell you, the new reading guide so completely overhauls them you’ll barely recognize that they’re from the same person.  Every chapter’s questions are prefaced by an extensive vocabulary section with key words and phrases and ways to work with them: conversation starters, idiom practice, proficiency-based tasks, and more.  The activities are much like what you’ll find in the Ciudad guide but I’ve added ideas for students to journal about and a section for them to investigate the culture of Francisco’s world.  It’s so extensive, you could build an entire semester course with an immigration theme off of this novel guide.  As to level, I recommend this novel for intermediate (mid-high) students.  I taught it in Spanish 3 for several years.

Since it’s such an extensive overhaul, and then there’s always the outside editing and the formatting headaches, it’s taking me at least six hours total to complete each chapter’s guide.  I had wanted to release the ebook July 1 but my workshop schedule in June took precedence and now I’m tentatively setting a release date of August 1.  I’m also traveling to visit family during this time, as well as approaching a deadline on a separate project, and that’s complicating things, so don’t hold me to that August 1 date either.  In order to accomplish this as soon as possible I’ll be off the blog and Twitter, mostly, for a while.  But you know where to find me.

The regular price for the 12-chapter guide, which I anticipate to be at least 45 pages long, will be $39.95 for the digital download and a license for the purchasing teacher to reprint the file for all his or her students for as long as he or she teaches.  At the release, the guide will be available at 25% off, $29.95, for one week only.  To celebrate the release I’ll also be offering the more advanced Ciudad guide on sale 20% off at $39.95.

More news to come!  In the meantime, please explore helpful past Musicuentos content, like the popular tags AP Spanish and student choice, or the Camp Musicuentos guide to mapping your curriculum.

Here I go back to my InDesign hole…

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July 9, 2014 3 Comments

What we learned at Camp Musicuentos

Camp Musicuentos 1

 

Well, last Friday came and went and the first official Camp Musicuentos is a wrap!  I had the great privilege of working with 20 outstanding teachers from across my own region and even beyond – I was joined by teachers from Kentucky, Ohio, Tennessee, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, Missouri, and Virginia!

Our learning, for you

First, let me share with you the Camp Musicuentos wikispace, where we were learning and sharing during the event.  On this wikispace, you’ll find:

  • Resources to help you develop and plan your curriculum for next year, including an editable version of my performance assessment rubric (it looks ugly in Google Drive but should open nicely for editing in Word).
  • Two templates: One to help you set proficiency goals for your program and another to help you plan the whole year
  • A list of the units and their goals I would teach at levels 1, 2, 3, 4, AP, and Spanish for Heritage Speakers.  Included is a sample integrated performance assessment for the first part of Level 1 based on the goals for the first two chapters of Descubre.
  • The curriculum maps that many of the teachers present at the event worked on and uploaded.  They are in varying stages of development depending on where everyone got to.

Now what?

I’ve gotten some great suggestions from readers via email, Twitter, and Facebook, and a lot of helpful constructive feedback from attendees via my post-survey, and my mind is spinning with what to do with Camp Musicuentos next year.  Here are some ideas going through my head:

  • Several readers have asked for an online version or webinar.  I’m still trying to wrap my mind around how to do this and frankly, not having a lot of success.  I don’t have a lot of experience with webinars.
  • There is a strong possibility for multiple locations next year.  I plan to run Camp Musicuentos at least once here in Louisville and once also in the Northeast, likely in Warwick, Rhode Island.  Other options feasible for me would be central Texas and northern Florida; I’ve also had some interest expressed for California and that’s more difficult but also something for me to think about.  In short, I’m seriously planning for one location other than Louisville next year and we’ll see what happens from there (and what I hear from you).
  • Several teachers who attended asked for more structure and I think I understand what they needed – but I don’t think I can give it unless we divide the event by level.  So I think for next year I should offer a Camp Musicuentos Novice and Camp Musicuentos Intermediate Plus (which is what I meant by “at least once” in Louisville).
  • Many of us got the impression that one nine-hour day was at the same time too intense and too short.  I’m considering offering two seven- or eight-hour days instead.  That way we could stay focused better and also accomplish more in terms of preparing you for the next school year.  Having two days would double the cost on my end and might make the workshop prohibitively expensive, so if I pursue the two-day idea I’d like to have the days themed so teachers could still attend one day or the other without it emptying those deep pockets we all know teachers have.

Please, let me know what you think about the resources available on the wikispace and any ideas or suggestions you might have.  I hope to see you at a Camp Musicuentos someday soon!

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June 30, 2014 2 Comments

Lesson plan: Indirect objects and celebrations (template too)

Hello this time from Merillville, Indiana, where I’m learning with a group of teachers from that school and other schools across the region. What fun!

This workshop’s focus is proficiency-based lesson planning.  We can say that we’re proficiency-based teachers but where the evidence of that can really be found is in our lesson plans.  Do your lesson plans show that focus?  What evidence can you give?

To help you plan a brain-based lesson that shows a proficiency focus from start to finish, I’ve developed this template with a serious nod to the wonderful Helena Curtain and her unit plan template and another one to Amy Lenord and her guide for navigating authentic resources.

Jenna Ross

Jenna Ross

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As an example, here’s the lesson plan I developed when I had the special privilege to (finally!) teach a class of novices this year for the informal Camp Musicuentos in April.  I didn’t want to do something random outside what the students were actually working on, so I asked the regular teacher for guidance and she said “indirect object pronouns in the context of celebrations.”  This lesson plan is what I came up with. You have to read it to figure out why Harry Styles landed on my blog (funny note, I had to Google “teen heartthrob” to find out who teenage girls were crushing on these days – I couldn’t have named anyone from One Direction before that!).  Steal, tweak, use, share your feedback!

 

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June 19, 2014 1 Comment

New Podcast: What kind of corrective feedback works?

Nicolee Camacho

Nicolee Camacho

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How do you mark student writing?  What kind of corrections do you make?  What kind of corrections work, that is, help students do better next time? The authors of a recent article in the journal System address these questions.  They compare two models of corrective feedback: explicitly telling a student there’s a problem, and implicitly coaching a student into self-correction.  Their findings about which type is more effective and their recommendations took me by surprise, and I’ll tell you how and why I disagree with them in this fifth episode of the Musicuentos Black Box podcast.  It’s free!

Also, stay tuned (ha!) for positive changes coming for the podcast.  This is a project that is very important to me but it definitely needs some streamlining to work better for you and me both.  An update soon!

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June 18, 2014 0 Comments

New resource: Educating parents and students on proficiency

Don’t smack me here, I know school JUST got out, but you know it’s true – it’ll be back before you know it!  And one of our most important jobs in the first days of school is educating (and selling!) parents and students on proficiency-based teaching.

Blue Square Thing

Blue Square Thing

I’m being hosted by The Webb School of Knoxville today and sharing with these teachers a resource I’d like to share with you as well.  How do you explain a proficiency focus to students and parents at the beginning of the school year? Check out this document and see if it helps.  Let me know what you think.  I’ve made it a document in Google Drive instead of a PDF or Word document to make it easy for you to edit; simply “File -> Save a copy” to copy it to your drive and make changes.  I do ask that you leave the copyright.

For a summary of a great #langchat from last year about advocating among students, teachers, and parents for proficiency-based teaching, look here.

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June 16, 2014 3 Comments